Archive for the ‘Subtle Energies’ Category

2014 – Year of the Green Water Horse

Friday, January 17th, 2014

By Jia Wu

We have crossed over the threshold of the Winter Solstice on our annual journey from darkness into Light. From now until the Chinese Solar New Year that begins on February 4th, 2014, we are in a period of flux as one cycle winds down and another is birthed. During this transition, major shifts in our Planet’s Light and energy occur as matter rearranges itself. This mutable, shifting phase is the perfect time to get your home and business prepared for the Year of the Green Wood Horse that arrives on January, 31st, 2014.

January, 2014, has two New Moons, and each one falls on a New Year’s celebration!! The first one occurred on January 1st, and the second one will be on the eve of the Chinese Lunar New Year, January 30th. Each year brings a new energetic pattern or theme, since the heavenly and earthly energies are continually moving and realigning. The energies for the year of the Green Wood Horse, also known as the “Horse in the Clouds,” brings yang wood sitting on top of fire and is much different from the mysterious, secretive “Black Water Snake!” Everything will be out in the open. It will be a year of “walking the walk” and not over thinking. Events will move quickly with unbridled energy and there will be no time for procrastination or idleness. It is also a year for surprising romance especially for the ox, snake and rooster.

According to Chinese custom, the “Grand Duke of Jupiter,” arrives each year in a different direction. He is also called Tai Sui or the “Minister of Time.” Tai Sui literally means the Great Year, the Jupiter Year, the 12 year sidereal period which the planet takes to travel around the sun. Each year as the “magnetic shadow“ of Jupiter passes over the Earth like a wave and darkens the direction of the “animal” of the year ( dragon, snake, horse etc.), the location of “the Grand Duke of Jupiter” is revealed!

For 2014, The Grand Duke resides in the “House of the Horse” which is in the South 172.5° – 187.5°. If your house faces these degrees, it is considered to be clashing with the Grand Duke. You may experience accidents, obstacles or loss of wealth. The cure is to minimize movement and any construction or digging in this direction. Also, do not face this direction. He does not like to be confronted or disturbed!

If your house faces North, you are lucky! It has the support of the Grand Duke. You will do better in business ventures and competition.

2014 Avoidance Days

In Feng Shui there are 13 days each year where one is advised to not do anything important! These are also known as the “Master – Killing” days. On these days, one should avoid moving, trading, receiving payments, getting married, getting buried, starting a new job or anything else important.

Feb. 12
Mar. 3
Apr. 8
May 5
June 2 and 28
July 27
Aug. 24
Sept. 20/28
Oct. 18
Nov. 15
Dec. 12
Jan. 19

Time for your annual Feng Shui update!
I now have the 2014 Talisman from the Monastery in China, that provides protection from the grand Duke!

This year, I am also offering a remote Biogeometry clearing along with the annual report for $50.00 more. It is very effective!

Happy New Year!
Love and Light, Carol

Please call 323-665-8410
or email
for your annual Feng Shui update!

2013 – Year of the Black Water Snake – Gui Si

Monday, January 14th, 2013

The Chinese Lunar New Year begins on Feb.10, 2013 and the Solar New Year, on which Feng Shui is based, begins Feb. 4, 2013, the first day of Spring (Li-chun.) Each year brings a new energetic pattern or theme, since the heavenly and earthly energies are continually moving and realigning. The energies for the year of the Black Water Snake, brings yin water sitting on top of fire and is much different from those of the passing Black Water Dragon year which has yang water sitting on earth! For 2013, it is important to know where the Tai Sui, Sui Po, Sans Sha and “The Evil Yellow Number 5” energies are located, so steps can be taken to avoid, and, or cure them (see below.) I am also sending Master Yang’s “Avoidance Days.” Many of you have contacted me with stories of how accurate these dates are!

According to Chinese custom, the “Grand Duke of Jupiter,” arrives each year in a different direction. He is also called Tai Sui or the “Minister of Time.” Tai Sui literally means the Great Year, the Jupiter Year, the 12 year sidereal period which the planet takes to travel around the sun. Each year as the “magnetic shadow“ of Jupiter passes over the Earth like a wave and darkens the direction of the “animal” of the year (rabbit, dragon, snake etc.), the location of “the Grand Duke of Jupiter” is revealed!

For 2013, the Grand Duke is General Xu Dan” and he resides in the House of the Snake which is in the Southeast 142.6° – 157.5°. If your house faces these degrees, it is considered to be clashing with the Grand Duke. You may experience accidents, obstacles or lose of wealth. The cure is to minimize movements such as construction or digging in this direction. He does not like to be disturbed!

If your house faces Northwest you are lucky! It has the support of the Grand Duke. You will do better in business ventures and competition.

Sui Po is the name of the energies that are directly opposite the Grand Duke in the Northwest. In 2013, these are in the sign of the pig. Sui Po generally doesn’t create any problems, until it is disturbed by such things as renovations, repairs, construction, digging of earth. Any form of earth works is to be avoided in the northwestern sector.

San Sha or 3-killings influence in 2013 is from 46° to 135° degrees. This spans part of the northeastern sector, all of the east and the first 15 of the southeast. Disturbing the San Sha can cause betrayal, robbery, loss of money, injuries, illnesses and fatalities. Avoid digging, construction, or any form of earth works in the Sans Sha area. The ancient texts mention that it is acceptable to have the front of your house facing San Sha.

The Yellow Evil Star flies to the Central palace this year. The “5 star” is earth and as fire produces earth, do not put anything yellow or red or burn anything in this area. So. be very careful when you do any construction and or other movement here, especially any movement of earth. This will probably only apply to those of you with inner courtyards.

2013 Avoidance Days

In Feng Shui there are 13 days each year where one is advised to not do anything important!
On these days, one should avoid moving, trading, receiving payments, getting married, getting buried, or starting a new job.

Feb. 14
Apr. 10
May 8
June 6
July 3
Aug. 2
Sept. 2/28
Oct. 26
Nov. 24
Dec. 22
Jan. 20

Happy New Year!
Love and Light, Carol

Please call
or email
for your annual Feng Shui update!

Living Symbols

Monday, December 19th, 2011

Vibrational Effects of the Crop Circle Patterns

By Kaayla Fox

Imagine not having words and writing in different languages, or if we could not hear; we would have to use symbols as was done in the past.  To many who visit the crop circles in the fields around the world, they are believed to be a language that activates a knowing, an energetic communication.  Thanks to the dedicated crop circle photographers, films and the internet, we are given the opportunity to change our limited realities with these images.

I discovered that the crop circle images that I transform into the LightCircles jewelry also have particular energies that can assist us along our earthly and spiritual journeys.  I first began making crop circle jewelry in 2000 and since that time, my involvement with the crop circle phenomenon has been the main arena for artistic expression and personal development.  This article is a glimpse into my personal discoveries, and the responses of those who have worked along side of me and those who have opened to higher aspects of themselves through crop circle vibrations.

In his book, Man and His Symbols, Carl Jung says about symbol, “…it always stands for something more than its obvious and immediate meaning.  Symbols are natural and spontaneous products.”  One might ask, what are we connecting to in these crop circle formations?  What draws us to look at these images over and over, and still feel intrigued and uplifted each time?  Is there something in the shapes?  Palden Jenkins, a crop circle researcher states, “The key lies in the invisible energy-fields and the crop patterns are just a footprint, a sign of what we’re looking at, but not the thing itself.”  That has been the driving force behind my life’s commitment to interact more deeply with the energies emanating from the patterns themselves as they are symbolized in the jewelry.

Watching people become more relaxed, bright eyed, and joyful after handling my crop circle jewelry, I wondered what would happen if these crop circle ‘mandalas’ were placed in an array on a person’s body, as one would do a gem stone layout for healing.  My concept of using these energetic medallions of sterling for healing, finally became more real when I met Stuart Wreschinsky, a natural clairvoyant, who recognized something ancient in the geometry and could ‘see’ the energies emanating from the silver.  We began to experiment with placing the medallions on the energy pathways of individuals, much like the ley lines and vortices on the Earth.  With his feedback, I began to define and document some of the mystical effects and interactions between people and the crop circle symbols.

To authenticate the experiences, we did a study using before and after session aura photos. Watercolor Aura Scans made by medical intuitive, Judith Jubb demonstrated significant energy field changes representing evidence of shifts in energy (healing) before and after a client’s exposure to the crop circle medallion placement.  Stuart also drew some fascinating line drawings of the energy patterns that he saw around the body of clients at various intervals throughout the session.  
Photos of these studies can be found at:

Working with clients, we noticed that in each progressive session a person received, their experience varied and the more deeply they connected into themselves on different levels.  The experience might be kinesthetic sensations one time, visual images another, deep emotional reactions or perhaps a combination the session after that.  We learned that these crop circle symbols are comprised of frequency patterns of subtle energy that can be seen by some people but felt by many others.

Dr. Richard Bartlett’s reference to quantum physics gives some clarity and insight into what may be going on when we respond to symbols.  In his book, The Physics of Miracles he says, “The mathematics and physics are unconscious symbolic languages.  They are meant to stimulate higher brain function — not the hired hand left brain’s higher analytical functions, but, instead, the right-brain awareness of symbolism and interconnectedness.”  Is this higher brain function connected only through the sight of symbols or is it even more possible that everything is connected energetically to be experienced as well?  Are we open to feel and interact with the intelligence behind these images?  Keep in mind that the sign we’re looking at is not the thing itself but invisible energy-fields.

Many people relate that they feel protected and grounded; more centered and confident when wearing the jewelry.  Some individuals need and want the support of an energetic reminder that they are more than a body with a thinking mechanism while they intuitively choose the symbols with the combination of frequencies they need at that particular moment.  This subtle yet powerful experience is completely individual depending on the responses within the personal energy field as it receives the vibrational information.

After documenting the placement of the medallions for about a year, we noted that as observers, we had began to use certain pieces in a repeated way brought about by looking at the results of our intuitive inclinations and then unconsciously drawing conclusions, thus influencing the outcome  This is exactly what we did not want to do.  We wanted to keep a fresh approach for each new client and session so that we were not causing the effects, but allowing the frequencies of the crop circles to interact naturally with the client’s energies at that moment in time.  There was no need to affect anything other than to assist the flow of information the client was receiving guided by their own higher intelligence.  That was the beauty of this process.  No ‘fixing’ required.  The intelligence behind the sacred geometry of the crop circle provided whatever was required.

We stopped analyzing the particulars, and returned to a more fluid intuitive approach that supported ‘at that moment in time’ involvement with our clients.  The interesting outcome was that the results were still repeatable even though we let go of any structured method of documenting medallion placement.  Even Ruppert Sheldrake says in his book, The Sense of Being Stared At: And Other Aspects of the Extended Mind, “The first and most fundamental kind of evidence for the seventh sense is personal experience….Experiences and observations are the starting point for science and it is unscientific to disregard or exclude them.”  The personal experience is what we rely on for verification.

This has become an extraordinary investigation of subtle energy and we believe it to be one of the most profound uses and purposes for the worldwide phenomena of crop circles.  Experiencing these powerful energies combined in an array in your personal energy field is quite amazing.  Energetic healing draws on all levels of a person’s consciousness, physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual.  It may enable the release of energies not harmonious that can cause illness, psychological problems or emotional upset.  About 97% of the clients report feeling calm, deeply relaxed, balanced, mentally clearer, and many also feel enlivened and refreshed as well, which is a state we could all use more of these days.  We have barely unearthed the tip of the potential opening to us through this process, and much more research needs to be done in order to know the long term benefits of working with the energetics of the crop circle patterns outside of the field experience.

Crop circle formations are believed to be encoded with Light and Information in universal patterns of vibration that interact with the core consciousness.  If we choose, this will raise the vibrational levels of our earth energies, and those individuals who come in contact with these emanations will feel more connected in unity.

In my personal search for the purpose in forging this path into the unknown and to answer the question of ‘why preserve these formations in silver metal’; it is because of the experiences of clients and customers.  They have confirmed my own understanding that the crop circles are not only for those who walk in the fields, but for everyone to learn from and experience their light and information.  The crop circles have shown themselves to be living entities of higher vibrational fields, guiding the transformational process of Crop Circle Energetics and the other energetic technology tools that I have developed.

The author, Kaayla Fox:  Following marriages and children, her Spiritual training includes the Berkeley Psychic Institute, the Motherpeace Female Shamanic Healing Arts, and California Certification in Hypnotherapy, Magnetic Healing, Reiki Master, and Matrix Energetics.  Today, she is known as the ‘Crop Circle Lady’ as she shows her LightCircles Jewelry across the country in galleries and stores.  She is the creator of LightCircles Vibrational Elixirs, and is the co-founder of Crop Circles Energetics, offering private sessions and group presentations with demonstrations of the ‘Crop Circles in Motion’ experience.  She is a Spiritual Counselor and a long distance Healer.  The author retains all copyrights.

For more information contact her by e-mail:



Feng Shui of Shoe Placement

Monday, December 19th, 2011

By Bill Russell

We have energetic ties to our shoes. They cover our feet through the day and display the body language messages of our foot movements and positions. When we remove our shoes, our feet are still intimately tied to them at our deep inner levels of awareness. They are symbols of our feet and, as shamans know, our inner awareness does not distinguish between a thing and a symbol of the thing. Our habitual foot positions affect how we deal with life situations. Likewise, the longer our shoes are set in a certain position when we take them off, the stronger we will be influenced by them. The shoe arrangements illustrated below shown below represent some of the positions in which we may arrange them after we take them off. In Fig. 1, shoes are removed and set to rest neatly side by side, facing forward. They indicate a vitality of poise, readiness, alertness and focused attention. A person with this kind of attitude is ready to take on any challenge when they get up in the morning and put on these shoes.

Fig. 1

If we change the pattern of Fig. 1 and set the shoes wider apart (Fig. 2), they establish a more grounded and stronger energy influence. Consequently, we will feel that way when we wear the shoes.

Fig. 2

When we store our shoes overnight with the toes pointed inward (Fig 3), we are setting ourselves up for a day of self effacement, weakness, hesitation and indecision.

Fig. 3

Now look at the placement shown in Fig. 4. We feel uncomfortable, unbalanced, vulnerable and disordered when we set aside our shoes in this pattern. Would you want to carry that feeling the next time you wear the shoes?

Fig. 4

A more extreme situation is represented in Fig. 5. Here, we have taken off our shoes and tossed them aside in a pattern that adds chaos and confusion to the energies of Fig. 4.

Fig. 5

Fig. 6 establishes an energy of not knowing whether we are coming or going. Don’t store your shoes overnight this way to impress that disorienting pattern on you if you want to have an effective day the next time you wear them.

Fig. 6

Shoes left overnight with their toes pointing outward as in Fig. 7 confer an energy of goofiness, eccentricity and instability. This pattern is a good arrangement for a clown.

Fig. 7

Setting your shoes aside with both turned slightly outward and the right shoe much farther ahead of the left, Fig8, establishes the energy of “putting your best foot forward” or “striding boldly ahead.” A person putting on these shoes is ready to march through any obstacles the day has to offer.

Fig. 8

In Feng Shui thinking, we are strongly influenced by the placement of objects in our environment. This evening when you take off your shoes, give some thought about how you will position them overnight and how they will make you feel tomorrow when you wear them.

If you doubt the effects that shoe arrangement can have on your vitality and experience, take off your shoes and have someone muscle test you while you are looking at the shoes arranged in one of the unsupportive patterns of Figs. 3 to 7. Then repeat the muscle test as you look at a supportive shoe arrangement as shown in Figs. 1,2 and 8. You will find that your muscle strength is stronger when you see the supportive patterns.

Muscle strength testing is simple. Simply hold an arm straight out in front of you and, as someone pushes downward on the wrist of your extended arm, resist the downward push.

Bill Russell is an herbalist and shaman brought up in the Pennsylvania German tradition. He has Hawaiian Huna training with Serge King. As a research physicist he was on the faculty at Pennsylvania State University in the 1960′s-70′s and worked with NASA in the 90′s. His Field Guide to Wild Mushrooms of Pennsylvania and the Mid Atlantic was published by Pennsylvania State University in 2006 and has received wide acclaim.

If you would like to contact Bill feel free to send an email to

Subtle Energies Between Celestial Bodies

Monday, December 19th, 2011

DECEMBER 10, 2010

Although lunar and solar eclipses are quite common and occur frequently because of the special dynamics between the Sun the Earth and the Moon, the complexity of motion causes each to be unique. The moon’s orbit around the planet varies in declination above the horizon seasonally, as does the appearance of the Sun. Declination refers to the height in degrees of angle above the equatorial horizon at which a celestial body is observed. In the Northern hemisphere, this is the southern horizon; in the Southern hemisphere, it is the northern horizon. Sometimes, only a partial eclipse is visible, and others a total eclipse occurs because of these combined phenomena.

For instance, we observe sunrise and sunset at positions traveling north until the Summer Solstice (in the northern hemisphere) is reached, and then the sun appears at points in a southerly direction until Winter Solstice when it again reverses. These observed changes are caused by the axis of the earth being tilted at a 23’ angle and the poles of the spinning planet facing the direct rays of the sun depending on the obit position of the earth relative to the sun. (see Planetary Cycles Summer Solstice 2008 in Planetary Cycles archives).

Likewise, as the moon orbits the earth, at times the zenith of declination occurs north or south of the celestial equator, changing every night. Zenith defines the highest point between east and west horizons above the Earth’s equatorial horizon that a celestial body is observed. An eclipse of either the sun or the moon occurs when the alignment of all three bodies causes one to pass directly between the other two, which brings about a momentary occultation.

Occultation describes when one celestial body is hidden by another celestial body from direct sight on earth. In the case of the two dominant luminaries in our earthly existence these are called Eclipses. As the moon is actually much smaller that than either the Earth or the Sun, the passage of the Moon between the Earth and the Sun makes a much smaller shadow on the surface of the Earth and for a shorter period of time. When the Earth passes between the Sun and the Moon causing a lunar eclipse, depending on these special relationships, a total lunar eclipse may last hours and is seen simultaneously over a broader populated area on earth.

This should partially explain why sometimes an eclipse is seen in some countries and not in others. The intervening body may not be in direct line of declination every time, and only a partial eclipse occurs. Also of course, depending upon the time of day in the 24 hour cycle of the Earth, the eclipse can only be seen where the bodies converge in the heavens above the horizons.

From thousands of years of observation documented in cultures around the world, humans have ascertained that there are several cyclic calendars, all happening simultaneously. We know the Lunar cycle is not quite 28 days long and is called the Sidereal cycle. The Synodic cycle is longer at slightly over 29 days; whereas the Solar cycle is over 30 days long. For a moment let us contemplate all these separate factors which come together to create an Eclipse. When we do this, it becomes clear why total eclipses do not occur at the same time every year, and why a total eclipse coinciding with solstice is rare.

The Lunar Eclipse falling over December 19-20 at Winter Solstice 2010 is extraordinary because one has not occurred since December 21, 1638 c.e. The next one is expected December 21, 2094 c.e. Although there have been Full Moons on Winter Solstice in 1980 and 1999, the Earth did not cross directly between the Sun and the Moon to bring about a total eclipse.

The 2010 lunar eclipse is observable from earth across western Europe, North and Central America, Alaska, Hawaii, and New Zealand, because these areas will be experiencing nighttime. For the earth’s shadow to cover the moon completely will take one hour (prenumbra), full shadow (umbra) will last over 1 hour, and the entire experience will last 3 hours and 38 minutes, until the moon travels beyond the shadow of the earth. In the eclipse expected in 2094, over Asia, central Europe and Africa, people will see the nighttime spectacle while the earth’s western hemisphere will be in daylight.

Partial Solar Eclipses in 2011 occur January 4, June 1, July 1, and November 25. A total Lunar Eclipse will take place again on December 10, 2011. The next Total Solar Eclipse is expected August 21, 2017 and be observed in the USA. How can we make these predictions? Because by recording observed phenomena over time, projections of expected motions of the bodies involved, can be mathematically calculated.

The Sidereal Calendar, has to do with the Stars and the cycles of the other luminaries in our solar system. The Atlantean culture, continued into Egyptian and Mayan systems, recorded even longer cycles in existence in the galaxy and beyond. Other recorded cycles include the Metonic lunar cycle; the cycle of the earth as it wobbles on its axis; and the Precession of the Constellations. We are finding out about these through research left in stone structures and ancient manuscripts, as well as the most technologically updated tracking systems devised currently. Recorded are ‘Long Day Cycles’ lasting 2,300 years and 23,000 years. As everything is constantly and eternally in motion, the multitude of possible variations of influences and interactions overwhelms the mind.

In a subtle energetic context, what human beings can recognize and use to advantage for health and well being tends to depend upon lunar and solar cycles. Planting and harvesting are definitely influenced by the gravitational pull of the moon and the rotation of the earth. Some years are better than others, some seasons are milder and more productive than others. Pausing to consider just these concepts, it is completely conceivable that when the earth blocks light and with it other energies from the sun to the moon for a brief period of time, simple cycles on earth could be substantially effected in a given area. Recognition and respect for these transitions is not so far fetched.

A total eclipse of the Moon is the only time when the energy of the Moon is unaltered by the power of the Sun. At any other time, the Earth is receiving both Lunar and Solar influences through the sunlight reflected off the surface of the Moon back to Earth. A very special intimacy between the Earth and the Moon occurs during an eclipse which can not occur at any other times. We are receiving pure Lunar energy on that side of the globe. Perhaps an important rebalancing is occurring which has been signaled in some as yet unnoticed way by the body of the Earth to the Moon, which then shifts position for that purpose.

We ourselves may be responding to attunement with energy frequencies only accessible during a Lunar eclipse. When you can, take the time to sit calmly in the moonlight and just feel the night around you. You may be amazed at the powers you sense.

Clearing Your Space

Monday, December 19th, 2011

From the October Newsletter at

Fall is a magical time of the year. We have just passed the equinox and are on our way to the thinly veiled portals of Halloween.

It is the perfect time to do some etheric housecleaning to rid our spaces of the invisible cobwebs and debris that have been gathering though out the year. In the last newsletter, we looked at the energetics of haunted places. Much of the time what we think of as haunted energies are actually caused by geopathic stress (geo – Earth, pathic – disease) and many feel the concepts are interchangeable. In the home,these unhealthy energies usually manifest as cold, damp and thick.

A Feng Shui remedy for this problem is to bring light and warmth into any extremely yin (dark) areas by placing a full spectrum light there and keeping it on day and night. This is especially important in the southwest and northeast sectors of the home as these directions are the doorways for spirit to enter. Here is where yang energy is transforming into yin energy and yin energy is changing into yang energy. This shift causes an energetic weakness in the fabric of space and time and enables portals into other realms to form. In the past, churches, temples and mosques around the world were aware of these secret doorways and consciously used this knowledge in their architecture. Unfortunately, much of this profound, ancient wisdom is quietly disappearing from our consciousness.

Sharp, loud sounds are also employed to break up congested areas. Bells and hand clapping are two methods frequently used to disperse unhealthy energy and clear the air. Piano music (metal element) is another good way to banish the sha (negative) energies. In the past, grandfather clocks with their timely chimes and churches bells were used to break up stagnant unhealthy energies within the home and the community and then to recondition the atmosphere with purer, life enhancing frequencies. When doing these clearing techniques, be sure a window is open, so the energy can escape and not simply resettle.

Orange peels are another Feng Shui method to clear and cleanse the air on many levels. The peels need to be dried for several days, and then crushed into small pieces and scattered around the perimeter of your rooms. Leave them for a day or so and then vacuum them up. A more powerful clearing method used to clear oppressive ghostly energies is to pound the dried peels into a powder and then burn it like incense. This method is also good to get rid of bothersome insects. Research on sweet orange essential oil finds that it makes people calmer and lifts their spirit.

To do a general space clearing, you can clap out the corners and drawers of every room to disperse the stagnant energy. Corners are where damp, cold and thick energies congregate. In the past, cultures around the world knew that was not healthy to sit or sleep in corners and arranged their living quarters accordingly. To do the clapping clearing, start at your front door and move counterclockwise around the first room, clapping your hands several times in each corner. Move your clapping hands downward and then upward in each corner until you get a loud clear crisp sound. If there there are any stuck energies, your clapping will sound muffled. Open any drawers you come to and clap inside of them also. Keep moving around each room until you are back to your front door. Now you are ready to clear the existing energies with a good quality bell or gong. The sound of the bell penetrates deeper than clapping into the walls and furniture.

Starting from the front door again, circle the inside of your house ringing the bell. Ring it only one time and wait until the sound almost dissipates. Then ring it again so there is a continuous stream of sound circling though your home. Keep ringing until you are back at your front door.

This simple clearing can be extended into a very complex ritual. Please contact me If you are interesting in a complete, professional space clearing. It is very powerful and the effects can be immediately sensed. In the next newsletter, I will present some more techniques for clearing electromagnetic pollution and other unwanted energies through the use of sea salt and baking soda.


M. Carol Assa